palm tree

palm tree

THE PALM TREES CHARACTERISTICS AND CARE

The ones that have best adapted to our climate are Phoenix dactylifera (date palm), Phoenix Canariensis (Canary Island Palm), Chamaerops humilis (Palmito or Margallo), Washingtonia filifera and Washingtonia Robusta and the one that withstands the cold and snow the most. It is the trachycarpus fortunei (Excelsa) that can reach an altitude of 2400 m.

Although there are more than 2,800 species of palm trees, the Chamaerops humilis or Palmito is the only palm tree, native to Europe. The Trachycarpus excelsa or fortunei, is found in the Himalayas, and can live at a height of 2400 m. and endure snow for four to five months out of the year.

There are very few of the more than 2,800 species of palm trees that can withstand frosts of several degrees below zero and of a certain duration. Therefore one of the data to take into account when choosing a shirt, would be where we are going to plant it.

Arecastrum Romanzoffianum (Coco Plumoso). In English Queen palm or Feather palm. Native to the South of Brazil, Argentina and Bolivia. Palm tree with a very smooth trunk, being able to reach up to 15 meters in height approximately. Monoecious species, that is to say with both sexes on the same plant. lives well in warm coastal areas. It resists frosts of up to 8º below zero. Fast growing as long as it is in rich soil and has moisture.

Brahea Armata (Blue Palm). In English Blue hesper palm or Big blue hesper palm. Originally from Mexico and California. It is one of the most beautiful palm trees. The leaves are large, webbed and of a very decorative grayish-green or bluish-green color. It can reach 12 meters in height. It has very long, highly branched and hanging inflorescences. It lives well in warm coastal areas. It resists frosts of up to 5º below zero approximately.

Butia Capitata. In English Jelly palm. Originally from Brazil, Uruguay and Argentina. Very ornamental palm tree, the trunk can reach 7 meters in height, the leaves are greyish or bluish green. The inflorescence is quite long over two meters. Monoecious species, that is, with two sexes on the same plant. It lives well in warm coastal areas or in areas with a continental climate. It resists frosts of up to 5º below zero approximately. Slow growth.

Chamaerops Humilis (Palmito). in English European fan palm and Mediterranean fan palm. Originally from Mediterranean regions, it is the only spontaneous palm tree on the Peninsula and throughout Europe. It has several trunks and can reach 4 to 8 meters in height. The leaves are palmate and their color varies from dark green, bluish or grayish. It lives well in warm coastal areas, but also at altitudes of up to 1000 meters. It is quite resistant to cold, down to 9º below zero. Slow growth

Livistona Chinensis (Chinese Fan Palm). In English Chinese fan palm. Native to China and Japan. Very ornamental palm with webbed leaves. The trunk reaches about twelve meters in height. It lives well in warm coastal areas, it can resist frosts down to approximately 7º below zero. It is slow growing.

Phoenix Canariensis (Canary Island Palm). In English Canary Island date palm. Originally from the Canary Islands, it is one of the most frequent palm trees in the Peninsula, and in the Canary Islands. It is often confused with the date palm, but the Canary Island has a thicker crown, a more intense green and a thicker trunk. It can reach 12-14 meters in height. It prefers warm coastal areas, it can resist up to 5º below zero. It resists drought well. The specimens in root ball must be transplanted in summer, in bucket they can be transplanted at any time of the year.

Phoenix Dactylifera (Date Palm). In English Date palm. It would originate from West Asia and North Africa. It is the palm tree that everyone knows. It can reach 25-30 meters in height. Some specimens may have suckers at their base, forming spectacular groups. The green color is much paler and grayish. It lives well in warm coastal areas, in sunny places, where it resists occasional frosts down to 5º below zero. The adult specimens in the root ball must be transplanted in summer, in a bucket they can be transplanted at any time of the year.

Phoenix reclinata (Senegal Date Palm). In English Senegal date palm or African wild date palm. Native to Tropical Africa. Palm tree with several trunks, up to 6-15 meters high. It has a bright dark green. It lives well in warm coastal areas, it also resists light frosts. Very rustic, it adapts to different soils.

Phoenix Roebelenii (Dwarf Date Palm). In English Dwarf date palm or Roebelen date palm. Originally from Laos. It is one of the finest and most elegant palm trees, with a delicate and exotic appearance. Small size. The trunk can reach up to 4 meters in height. It lives in warm coastal areas, where the temperature does not drop below zero degrees. It can be used in flowerpots, decorating patios and terraces.

Rhapis Excelsa (Chinese Palm). In English Lady palm or Broad leaf lady palm. Originally from China. Small palmerita, with several very thin trunks, palmate leaves that form tight clusters, ideal for growing in planters or pots in patios and terraces in warm areas, in cold areas indoors. Its trunks reach 3-4 meters high and only four or five centimeters thick. They live well in warm coastal areas, they are quite resistant to cold and bear frosts down to 2º below zero. They prefer semi-shade or shade. Indoors they are quite resistant to the lack of light. Humid environment and abundant watering. Slow growth

Sabal Palmeto. In English Palmetto or Palmetto palm. It would originate from the southeastern United States. Palm tree with a single trunk, it can reach more than 20 meters in height. It lives well in warm coastal areas. being able to even live on the beach where it resists the wind and the salinity of the soil. It resists frosts of more than 2º below zero. Slow growth

Trachycarpus Fortunei (Chamaerops excelsa, Chinese Fan Palm). In English Windmill palm or Chinese windmill palm. Native to Central and Eastern China. It can grow to approximately 10-12 meters tall. with a solitary trunk, thin and covered by the sheaths of the fallen leaves and by a kind of burlap. It is a monoecious species, with both sexes on the same plant. It lives well in warm coastal areas, but it is also one of the most cold and snow resistant palm trees. It resists temperatures of 8º below zero.

Washingtonia Filifera (Californian Fan Palm). In English Petticoat palm or Cotton palm. Originally from Mexico, California. It is one of the most used palm trees in Spain, due to its great ornamental value. It can reach about 18 meters in height. It has long interfoliar inflorescences up to five meters long. Slow growing. It prefers warm coastal areas, it is also one of the palm trees that better resists the cold. It can resist up to 5º below zero. Resists salinity well.

Washingtonia Robusta (Mexican Fan Palm). Originally from Mexico and California. Very similar to W. filifera but with a thinner and more slender trunk. It grows faster than W. filifera. It resists frost, adapts well to cold and dry climates. It is not suitable for growing indoors, due to its brightness requirements.

CARE FOR YOUR PALM TREES

Las Palmeras can be had both indoors and outdoors. There are varieties that are better adapted to the outdoors or garden, and there are others better adapted to live indoors and in pots.

Indoors:

- Plants in general prefer places with direct light or that have good lighting, it will always be preferable next to a window, on a balcony or on a terrace.

- It is essential that they have good drainage, both in soil and in pot. It is advisable to put a layer of engraving on the bottom of the pot.

- The ideal substrate for palm trees has to be rich in organic matter, a good worm humus.

- Irrigation has to be every 3 or 4 days, before making sure that the substrate is dry, excess water is not good.

Outside:

- There are palm trees that prefer direct sun and others prefer more shady areas, it is also very important to take into account the climate of the place where you live, there are palm trees well adapted to low temperatures and other palm trees that prefer warmer climates.

- It is essential that they have good drainage, both in soil and in pot. Water puddles are not good for plants in general.

- The ideal substrate for palm trees has to be rich in organic matter, a good worm humus, Compost or Manure would be enough.

- Irrigation, as the palm tree is on the ground and being more intense than in a pot, it can be one watering a week.

- A preventive treatment against diseases with repeated spraying 3 or 4 times a year allows to keep some species of palm trees safe from possible pests.

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